Rabu, 17 Februari 2010


Field: Linguistic (Sociolinguistic)

A. Background of The Study
Language is a system of communication learned and used by human being in
human life when they are speaking and writing. We used language to express our
purpose in order to that the other people can understand with our speaking. The nature
of language is the system of sounds and words by human to express their thought and
feeling (Oxford, 1995:662)
Based on the explanation above, it means that the language has an important role
in our life. Without language, the communication will never be understandable to the
addressee or in the society. Furthermore, language is indispensable as a main device of
human communication.
The study of internal structure of language is called linguistics. Etymologically,
it is study of original word. Afterward linguistics cooperate other sciences; one of them
is sociology and it is known as sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study of ways
people use in social interaction. When ones speak to other, ones mix two or more
language in one of occasion, and it is called code mixing.
Hornby (1987:170) put forwards communication is means of communicating;
roads, railways, telephone or telegraph lines connecting places, radio, and television.
Communication is also meant as the act of transmitting information, ideas, and attitudes
from one person to another. This is mass communication, ideas, and attitudes to s
sizeable and diversified audience through the use of the media developed for that
purpose. In the communication there are four aspects of communication process,
namely: the communicator, the massage, the channel, and the audience.
In this time, the communication by writing is preferred by many people to other
such as: magazine, massage or short massage, diary, novel, poem, etc. Now, since the
hand phone is familiar in the society, ones ca n communicate easily to express her
wants, feeling, ideas, and etc. Ones just make short massage on the hand phone, and it
can be sent directly. As everybody know hand phone is one of communication tool in
our life.
A mobile phone or hand phone (also known as a wireless phone or cell phone) is
a short range, electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a
network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. In addition to the standard voice
function of a mobile phone, telephone, current mobile phones may support many
additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for a t ext massaging, email, packet
switching for access to internet, gaming, Bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder
and MMS for sending and receiving photos and videos. But in this paper the writer just
explains about short message service.
In the short message, sometimes ones use two or more language just like
Indonesian, Javanese, Arabic, English, Sudanese, Bataknese, Sumatranese, and etc. This
thing called by code mixing. But, for this paper just focuses on Indonesian­English code
mixing in short message on mobile phone.
B. Identification of the Problem
Based on the problems which are described in the background of study for choosing
and limitation from writer, the problem from this research is limited in sociolinguistic
study on code mixing used on mobile phone. Code mixing conducted by them is in
various forms, such as: words, phrases, and sentences.
C. Limitations of the Problem
There are some problems which make the writer confused to understand. The SMS
often mixes one language with another and sometimes the sentences is ungrammatical,
also code mixing conducted in this title in various forms, such as: words, phrases, and
sentences. The writer focuses on the certain language involving sociolinguistic study on
cone mixing used on mobile phone.
D. Formulation of the Study
In this study, the writer will discuss the matters as follows:
1. What is sociolinguistic?
2. What is code mixing?
3. How is the code mixing on mobile phone?
E. Objective of the study
Based on the formulation of the study above, the writer points out these following
objectives of the study:
1. To know the definition of sociolinguistic
2. To know the definition of code mixing
3. To know the code mixing on mobile phone
F. Significance of the Study
The problem of analysis of the meaning has got attention because the human could
think intellectually. For the writer, this discussion of the meaning is very interesting to
improve and to express the meaning is main thing in communication. In generally, one
of the benefits learns code mixing used on SMS on mobile phone.
G. Theoretical Framework
1. Sociolinguistic
Sociolinguistic is branch of linguistics that studies about language and society.
Chaika (1982:2) state that sociolinguistics is study of the ways people use language in a
social interaction.
Sociolinguistics will be concerned with investigating the relationship between
language and society with the goal of the better understanding of the structure of
language and how language function in communication (Wardaugh, 1986:12).
Sociolinguistics is also concerned with relationship between language and the context in
which it is used (Holmet, 2001:1).
Nababan (1983:3) divides sociolinguistic in three parts that are:
a. Discuss language in social and structural context
b. Connect the language factors, features language variety with the situation and
cultural context.
c. Discuss the social functions and use of language in society.
Sociolinguistics is partly empirical and partly theoretical partly a matter of going out
and amassing bodies of fact and partly of sitting back and thinking, Hudson (1996:1)
Nababan (1984:2) states that sociolinguistics is the study or discussion of language
related to the language user as a member of society.
Sociolinguistic is a science, which studies the characteristics and various languages,
and the relation between language and the various language functions in a speech
society (Kridalaksono, 1978: 78).
2. Code Mixing
Code mixing is a mix of code that occurs when conversant uses both languages
together to the extent they change from one language to other in the course of single
utterance (Wardaugh, 1992:106).
According to Suwito (1982:42), in code mixing, we can see the borrowing elements
of sentence from one language to other language. The writer uses two language or more
language to state their thought, instruction, message, and experiment in order to that
readers can receive what the writer has expresses.
This problem is caused by the situation that demands language mixing and the habit of
the speaker that becomes the background of code mixing.
Wardaugh (1986:104) says that conversational code mixing is not just a haphazard
mixing of two languages brought about laziness or ignorance or some combination of
these. Code mixing also has some functions such as to show mother tongue, to be used
in particular term. It is influenced by some factors. Marjohan (1988:10) says that the
factors of code mixing are education, politics, economic, law, and technology.
3. Code Mixing in Mobile Phone
Wardhaugh (1986:9) claims that the term code is used to refer to any kind of system
that two or more people employ for communication (it can actually be used for a system
used by a single person, when someone devises a private code to protect certain secrets),
in this case, code mixing refers to language used for communication.
Code mixing is a mix of code that occurs when conversant use two language
together that changes from one language to the others in the course of a single utterance
(Wardhaugh, 1992:106). If one mixes two languages in one sentence by inserting other
elements of language, it means that he uses code mixing. The using of code mixing is to
show up in each kind or each variation of language to make it more interesting.
The phenomena of code mixing are also used by short message maker who has high
education background in her life. This kind of code mixing is used in order to make a
close relationship between the short message maker and her friend. These are some
examples used by short message maker when he/she sends a message to friend:
a. “Sorry kemerin aq dh tidur”
b. “Jangan lupa bsk saya tunggu di TU. Nice night!”
c. “Her, absenin ya!! Ak mu go home dl. Thanks”
4. The Form of Code Mixing in Mobile Phone
The code mixing conducted by short message maker takes place in three forms,
namely: words, phrases, and sentence.
a. Code Mixing in Words
The words include noun, adjective, verb, and adverb. A noun is used to
name or identity any of a class of thing, people, place or ideas. An adjective is used to
state the function and characteristic of person or something and a verb used to state in
action. For Example: “hay lg ngp?, btw Yuli jd operator warnet ya?”
b. Code Mixing in Phrases
Phrase form is a group of words without finite verb, especially when they
used to form part of a sentence (Longman, 1987: 771).
For example: “Dead line pendaftaran kapan”
Here are some examples of phrase used in code mixing in this study.
1) Noun Phrase
Noun phrase is a phrase whose function in a sentence is equivalent to
that of a noun (Hornby, 195:791).
For Example: “seminarnya full doorprize gk?”
2) Adjective Phrase
Adjective phrase is a phrase whose function in a sentence is
equivalent to that of adjective (Mas’ud, 1987: 188)
For Example: “Ujuanya so easy bwtku”
c. Code Mixing in Sentence
An oral or written communication is made up of one or more unit, each
of which contains a complete utterance formed according to a definite pattern. Such
units are called sentences. A sentence may consist of one or more words. Examples of
one word sentence are such exclamations are Thanks!, good!, what!, fire!, etc. The
sentence codes mixing in this study are in the following form:
1) Declarative
Frank (1972: 220) says that in declarative, the subject and predicate
have normal word order. The sentence ends with period in writing and drop
in pitch in speech.
For Example: “ I want to sleep now. Capek gara­gara td pgi”
2) Interrogative
Interrogative includes yes/no question, WH question, and subject
question (Mas’ud, 1987: 9).
For Example: “Yan, baju yang kamu pilih ap? Green or blue”
3) Imperative
Imperative sentence usually contain the imperative of a verb. A
jesperson (Essentials of English Grammar, p 294) observes, “the imperative
is used in request which according to circumstances may range from brusque
commands to humble entreaties, the tone generally serving as key to the
exact meaning.”
For Example: “ Hurry up!! Aku mu pke motornya”
5. The Probable Reason the Short Message Maker Mix the Language
a. Prestige Reason
Prestige is one of reasons of usage of code mixing. Many people apply
code mixing to boost up their prestige.
Code mixing conducted by the short message maker may give some impression that
the short message maker comes from a prestigious class. At least it will give an
impression that the short message maker knows a foreign language.
For example: “Aku sekarng lagi hunting buku di Perpus”
b. No exact word s or term in Indonesia
Because the technology development as recently. There are so many terms
in English that cannot be found their meaning in Indonesia, like Remote Control,
Hand phone, Outbound, Cream Bath etc. The short message maker uses those terms
in SMS act, because there is no suitable term or word in Indonesia.
c. Emotional appeal
Sometime the short message maker wants to express the emotional when
he/she make short message. He/she insert other language to express his/her
emotional. For example: “Rudi, please give my book right now oke!”
H. Research Method
1. Research Design
Research design is research plan to be implemented in answering the research
problem formulated (Young, 1999:35). There are two research designs. They are
qualitative research and quantitative research. Moleong (1989:3) state that qualitative
research is a research procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of written or
spoken language and observable behaviour. The characteristics of descriptive data are
non numeric, in the form manuscript, interview, note, field, photo, tape, video, private,
document, etc. Bogdan and Bicklen (1982: 152) also mention that qualitative research
has natural setting as the direct source of data and the researcher is the key of the
instrument. Descriptive research concerns with the process rather than simply outcome
or products. It tends to analyze the data inductively, and “meaning” is essential concerns
in the qualitative approach. The aim of descriptive research is to describe condition and
phenomenon status (Arikonto, 1998:245). In a quantitative research or interest is in the
normative acquisition behaviours of population qualification representing a reality for
that group (Selinger and Shohamy, 1989:115).
The writer uses qualitative method for the research. The reason for choosing this
method is that the data observed in the form of words. The researcher does not involve
number use statistical procedure. Meleong (2007:6) says that descriptive method is a
method that has a purpose to make a description, a systematic illustration, factual and
accurate of data, characteristic and the relationship of phenomena which are researched.
Thus, the writer uses the description qualitative method to describe or explain a
sociolinguistic study on code mixing used on mobile phone. On the other hand, Best
through Susilo (2005) says that to describe research is a research method which tries to
describe and interpret the object by using percentage. In the research, the writer does not
use statistical procedure in collecting the result by using percentage as he additional
2. Research Object and Source of Data
Research object is anything that becomes the attention to a research (Arikunto,
1992:91). The data source is taken from friend’s short message (SMS)
3. Data Source
Arikunto (2006:139) says that data source is the subject from which data are
obtained. Meanwhile Meleong says that the data source in the qualitative research is
words and action which are examined or interview. In this study, the data are from some
of message created by the writer’s friends.
4. Technique for Collecting the Data
Sudaryanto (1992:33­35) state there are some techniques of collecting data
namely: recording technique (using recording instrument), noting technique (using card,
book, note and another documents) to analyze the data, separating technique (separating
similarities and differences of the distribution), transfering technique (transfering data to
the other data) to a book and the last is changing technique ( changing the data which
are not necessary to understand).
Meanwhile, Arikunto (2006:222) says that collecting data is a conscious attempt
to gathering the data which done systematically, with the standard procedure. There are
many kinds of instrument to be used in the research, such as test, questionnaire,
interview, observation, raising scale, and documentation.
Based on the technique and method collecting data by Arikunto, the researcher
use two techniques, namely interview and documentation. The researcher does interview
to some friends. The researcher also does documentation technique.
The steps of collecting data are described below:
a. Visiting the library
The researcher visits the library and look for the books as the data were used in
this research. They have relationship with linguistic theory, sociolinguistic teory,
and other books support this research.
b. Reading source
The research reads some source and selecting books that become sources of the
c. Making notes
After getting the data, the researcher write down the data needed to complete or
support the researcher’s statements related to the topic.
d. Categorizing data
After the researcher do the steps above, the important thing that the researcher
do is categorizing the data into appropriate part.
5. Technique Analyzing
The researcher use descriptive analysis. There are some techniques analyses
(Bugin, 2005:84­100). They are content analysis (using objectivity, systematic approach,
and generalization), domain analysis (analysis object in general), taxonomic analysis
(using non contrast approach among the elements), componential analysis (using
contrast approach among the elements), discovering cultural themes analysis (collecting
themes, cultural focus and value) and contrast comparative analysis (comparing event in
each category, matching category with is characteristic and limits the theory which is
The researcher wants to describe the code mixing, especially code mixing on
mobile phone. The research just analyzes code mixing on mobile phone, not in other
In doing the analysis, the writer goes through the procedure as follows:
a. The researcher learns the code mixing.
b. The researcher analysis the code mixing on mobile phone.
I. Bibliography
Arikunto, S. 1992. Prosedur Penelitian Edisi Revisi. Jakarta: PT. Rineke Cipta
Badgan, Robert, & Bicklen, Sari Knopp. 1982. Qualitative Resaerch for Education;
Introduction to Theory and Method. Massachucetts: Allyn & Baicon inc.
Bugin, Burhan. 2005. Metode Linguistik. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press
Chaika, Elerne. 1982. Language the Social Miror. Tokyo: Newbury House.
Holmet, Janet. 2001. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University
Hornby,a.s. 1974. Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Correct English.
Oxford:Oxford Unuversity
Kridalaksana, Harimurti. 1978. Fungsi Bahasa dan Sikap Bahasa. Flores: Nusa Indah.
Meleong, Lexy.J. 2007. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja
Nababan, P.W.J. 1986. Sociolingustics Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: PT Gramedia.
Shohamy, Elana. 1989. Second Language Research Method. Oxford University Press
Sudaryanto. 1992. Metode Linguistik.Yogyakarta: Gajahmada University Press
Susilo, Muhamad Joko. 2005. Design Eksperiment dan Pengolahan Data Penelitian.
Yogyakarta: LP2I Yogyakarta.
Wardaugh, Ronald. 1998. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. New York: Brasil
A Thesis Proposal
Submitted as Partial Fulfilment
of Linguistic Research Method Subject
Proposed by:
Ranis Marhatin
08304483 / D